Wael O. Badeghaish, Dr. Mohamed N. Noui-Mehidi, and Oscar D. Salazar
Reprinted with permission Journal of Technology Saudi Aramco.
Corrosion in oil and gas operations is generally caused by water, carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and can be aggravated in downhole applications where high temperatures, combined with H2S, introduce other challenges related to corrosion and iron sulfide scale formation. The repair costs from corrosion attacks are very high and associated failures affect on plant production rates and process integrity.
To overcome this existing problem in upstream, nonmetallic composite materials were introduced for drilling, tubular, and completions in high risk, corrosive environments the goal being to increase the well’s life cycle and minimize the effect of corrosion, scale, and friction in carbon steel tubulars. The new proposed materials are lightweight, have high strength, and have superior fatigue resistance, in addition to an outstanding corrosion resistance, which is able to surpass many metallic materials.
The economic analysis shows that utilization of nonmetallic tubulars and linings will yield substantial life cycle cost savings per well, mainly due to the elimination of workover operations. Subsequently, with these advantages, composite materials pose several challenges such as single source provision, high initial cost of raw materials, the manufacturing process, and the limitation of nonmetallic standards. As a result, the polymer and composite solutions for upstream oil and gas use are still very limited, even in targeting low risk applications such as low temperature and pressure scenarios. Therefore, research and development (R&D) efforts are ongoing to increase the operation envelope and introduce cost-effective raw materials for high-pressure, high temperature (HPHT) subsurface applications.
This article highlights practical examples of nonmetallic materials selection and qualification for upstream water injector/producer and hydrocarbon wells. Several future nonmetallic applications in upstream will be summarized. Challenges and R&D forward strategies are presented to expand the operation envelope of current materials and increase nonmetallic deployment to more complex wells, i.e., extended reach drilling.
Carbon steel is the preferred material of choice for downhole applications. Carbon steel has distinct advantages over other materials in terms of material cost, temperature and pressure ratings, and field construction support services. One downside of a carbon steel flow line is a limited “lifetime” due to corrosion, but also includes repair cost, maintenance costs, and corrosion monitoring. The corrosion rate is also gradually increasing, which is attributed to the presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), and high cuts of highly saline waters. Corrosive fluids are generally handled by chemically inhibited carbon steel and corrosion resistant alloys (CRAs). The CRAs significantly increase the project cost and complexity. Currently, the oil and gas industry is considering different techniques to combat corrosion and one of these techniques is the utilization of nonmetallic products.
The nonmetallic composite materials help to reduce capital and operational expenses without ignoring the safety, reliability, and long-term erformance. Nonmetallic composite materials have been widely used in onshore and offshore applications, including line pipe systems, flow lines, and topside applications (grates, ladders, and tanks). For instance, rigid reinforced thermoset-ting resin (RTR) pipes and reinforced thermoplastic pipes (RTP) were utilized for a number of years in a variety of onshore and offshore hydrocarbon service applications, and have proven to be successful to control corrosion and enhance the system reliability, Fig. 11.
The successful experience of the deployment of nonmetallic materials downstream in onshore and offshore applications has paved the way to increase the deployment in downhole applications.
The main business drivers to increase the utilization of nonmetallic materials in upstream oil and gas applications, include1:
- Reduce the cost of the well by using lower horsepower capacity drilling rigs.
- Improve well integrity through the utilization of noncorroding materials, and accordingly, increasethe well’s life cycle.
- Reduce operational time and risk through the handling of lighter tubulars, and minimizing the potential lockup/buckling in downhole due to less friction.
- Promoting the conversion of oil to petrochemicals (boosting the feedstock for nonmetallic products would increase demand for oil).
- The fiber optic sensing can be easily embedded in the composite system and this will help to optimize the upstream operation by collecting downhole real-time data.
In fact, the deployment of nonmetallic materials in upstream is strategic and aligns with industry trends. Subsequently, in upstream applications, specifically downhole environments, the conditions and standards applicable tothe common flowline no longer applies. The material is subjected to a more complex set of dynamic stress conditions under variable multiphase fluids — internal and external — and temperatures. Several forces such as internal pressure (burst), external pressure (collapse), tension, and axial compression play a significant role in the nonmetallicdownhole tubular performance.
These materials offer lightweight, high strength, superior fatigue resistance, and outstanding corrosion resistance that is able to surpass many metallic materials. In many cases of downhole deep well operations, the service tools are required to perform at a temperature of 150°C to 232°C, and under a pressure ranging from 5,000 psi to 15,000 psi — most of the time in a wet environment2.
As a result, the applications of nonmetalliccomposite downhole are still very limited, which requires an intensive research effort with service companies and academic.
Currently, the industry has explored the opportunity to deploy nonmetallic materials in upstream with low hanging fruit applications, and at the same time, working on research and development (R&D) supports the expanding operating envelope targeting high-pressure, high temperature (HPHT) applications. This application is seen by the industry as significant and strategic for upstream operations.
COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND DESIGN SELECTIONS
Composite materials are made from combining two or more materials, which provides the new material with unique properties, over and above the original materials. Nonmetallic composite materials are divided in two groups as fiber reinforced plastics and fiber reinforced resins. The matrix materials are classified into three categories: (1) thermoplastic, (2) thermosetting, and (3) elastomeric. A diverse array of reinforcements are used, which includes glass, carbon, and aramid. The fiber reinforcement has different grades, and it can be used as a tape or in the form of braided fibers.The role of the fiber is to carry the overall load and the role of the matrix is to transfer the stress within the fiber, and protect the system from mechanical damage.
The proper material selection of fiber and matrix for downhole completion equipment — essential in considering functional requirements, temperature, pressure, chemical and abrasion resistance — is key to a safe, reliable, fit-for-purpose and cost-effective operation over the design life of the well. In piping, the combination of these raw materials is used to make final composite products such as the RTR pipe and RTP, and the most recent technology use is the thermoplastic composite pipe (TCP).
Each composite has a different design and manufacturing process.The RTP structure is composed of three layers not fully bonded:(1) an inner layer that acts as a bladder and contains the process stream, (2) an intermediate layer that reinforces the pipe, and (3) an outer sheath that protects the pipe from wear, impact, and weathering effect.Figure 23 shows the configuration of the RTP.
Consequently, the TCP is made from three layers: (1) a liner, (2) a composite, and (3) a protective layer, forming a fully bonded solid wall pipe4. The TCP structure is made from either tape carbon or aramid fibers, which are designed for high-pressure applications. The TCP concept is increasingly gaining the attention of the oil and gas industry4.The RTR or fiberglass pipe is manufactured by a helical filament winding process. The fiber is embedded in an epoxy matrix and laid in an axial and hoop direction.
Depending on the applications and downhole conditions, fibers and polymer materials are defined, such as glass or carbon/aramid fibers and highperformance engineering thermoplastic polymers such as polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyetheretherketone (PEEK), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a promising material for downhole applications. This is because of the superior properties of the semi-crystalline resin that has good chemical resistance at high operating temperatures2.
Table 1 shows key mechanical and physical properties for assessing the suitability of polymers and fibers for downhole applications.
The selection of materials for downhole use, such as tubular, completion and drilling equipment, shall be evaluated based on international standards in line with the International Organization for Standardization and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers. This helps in selecting the proper nonmetallic materials for the downhole environment. In general, there are several key properties that need to be evaluated during material selection. These properties include:
- Compatibility with the service environment.
- Withstanding downhole stress (burst and collapse pressure).
- Thermal expansion.
- Tensile, strength, elongation at break, modulus of elasticity at minimum and maximum temperatures.
- Swelling and shrinking (mass and/or volume) by gas and by liquid absorption.
- Gas and liquid permeation.
- Resistance to gas decompression.
- Creep resistance at HPHT.
- Resistance to thermal cycling and dynamic movement.
- Chemical resistance to stimulation treatment.
- Erosion and abrasion resistance.
The numerical simulation is a very essential tool, which helps in selecting the proper materials, fiber orientations, and the thickness of composites, which suits certain applications. The simulation work is a key element to optimize the selections and decide the most economical solution based on the operating conditions.
Table 2 summarizes the proper fiber and matrix materials selection based on the different operating conditions and well service. A multilayer fiber needs to be considered in case of high pressure in downhole applications.
|Composite Materials||Name||Strength (MPa)||Young’s Modulus (GPa)||Tg (0C)||Tm (0C)||Continuous use Temp (0C)|
|Carbon HS||3,200||230 – 350||–||–||–|
|Carbon HM||2,500||> 400||–||–||–|
|Aramid||3,000||65 – 130||–||–||–|
|PEEK||80||–||143||334||190 – 210||–|
|PPS||70 – 135||–||85 – 250||285||170|
|PVDF||40 – 60||–||– 60||170||150|
Table 1 Key mechanical and physical properties for assessing the suitability of polymers and fibers for downhole applications
|Well Service||Downhole Conditions||Reinforcement||Matrix|
|Water||Low to Moderate Pressure and Temperature||Glass||Epoxy|
|Oil||Moderate to High Pressure and Temperature||Carbon, Aramid||Epoxy, PVDF,PPS|
|Gas||HPHT||Carbon, Aramid||PVDF,PPS, PEEK|
Table 2 Proper selection of fiber and matrix composite materials for different operating conditions and well service.
Fig. 4 A summary of the future potential applications of nonmetallic composites in downhole use
Fig. 3 Nonmetallic development roadmap for the current and future downhole applications.
Currently, the main industry focus is in water applications, including supply, injection, and disposal wells,since they present less associated risk and are cost-effective solutions compared to carbon steel. For instance, the full nonmetallic composite tubular composed of GRE, Fig. 6, has been tried worldwide in shallow water supply and observationwells6.The use of fiberglass casing in an observation well is becoming an area of interest, because it allows for the use of some deep induction open hole logging tools for measuring the changes in formation properties behind the casing7.
Enhancing the performance of current GRE casings and tubings above a rated pressure of 5,000 psi is feasible, by using high glass transition temperature point epoxies coupled with seamless manufacturing techniques, such as the rotational casting manufacturing process, strives to minimize composite body porosity and enhance the mechanical integrity at high temperatures. In fact, some manufacturers have developed prototypes that have been initially pilot tested8. On the other hand, one of the most challenging aspects is related to the leakage at the tube joints. Therefore, parallel research and validation should be done at the same time in this area. The development of nonmetallic composite tubulars for oil and gas operations are quite challenging, due to the high initial costs of raw materials, special manufacturing processes, and the complexity of the downhole operating conditions. Therefore,several technical and economic factors need to be evaluated as part of the feasibility studies.
|Outside Diameter||30”||13 3/8”||9 5/8”||4 1/2”||4 1/2”||4 1/2”|
|Burst pressure (psi)||2,000||4,000 to 7,000||12,000||4,000 to 5,000||7,000 to 10,000||10,000 to 15,000|
|Collapse pressure (psi)||1,500||2,500 to 6,500||11,000||4,000 to 5,000||7,000 to 10, 000||10,000 to 15,000|
|Temperature (°F)||150° F||260° F||320 °F||200 °F||260 °F||260 °F|
As a result, the right decisions need to be madebased on the following important factors:
- The life cycle of metallic pipes— frequent failure.
- Upgrading metallic materials (CRA) vs. composite cost.
- Workover cost.
- Production loss cost.
Location, either offshore or onshore. Besides the tubular, the velocity string isa low hanging fruit application to utilize the RTP or TCP composite design replacing a conventional steel string.
Installing a velocity string reduces the flow area and increases the flow velocity to enable liquids to be carried from the wellbore. Velocity strings are commonly run using coiled tubing (CT) as production means.
Figure 7 shows a schematic of this technique9. The industry has realized the high impact of the composite velocity string, due to itsability to run riglessly, the ease of installation and the ability to eliminate the premature corrosion with metallic strings. The main target is to deploy the composite velocity string in the shallower vertical/deviated unconventional gas, oil, and waterwells,and then thecomposite operating envelope will be improved, targeting extended reach applications.
Increasing the reliability of the nonmetallic composite tubular covering many applications in downhole is a significant milestone. To achieve this target, several associated challenges were identified that need to be addressed as part of the development plan. Those challenges are related to well completion and intervention operation, such as the packer setting, perforation, cementing, completion installation, and joint connection.
Thermoplastic Lined Carbon Steel Tubing
The internal lining technology with conventional GRE material has been widely used in the industry as a method for corrosion protection of downhole carbon steel tubing, Fig.8. Thermoplastic liners or poly liners are another technology for downhole tubing products, which have presented a significant impact for reducing corrosion failures, with abrasive resistance in injection, disposal, and hydrocarbon wells. The thermoplastic liner is a thin layer of plastic, which is mechanically inserted inside new or used carbon steel tubing, and may offer a competitive advantage over CRAs in term of cost and life cycle. The cost savings were realized with fewer workovers and increased tubing life10. There are four commercially available thermoplastic liner materials, and each has a limited temperature envelope of operating in wells up to 260°C. For instance, the most commonly used thermoplastic liners in oil and gas production services are largely extruded from polyolefin for installation in environments up to 99°C; yet, for more demanding environments, engineering thermoplastics such as PPS are available to handle temperatures as high as 175°C. In the most extreme production environments with temperatures up to 260°C, liners made of PEEK are utilized10. All of these plastic materials are significantly more flexible with high impact resistance compared to traditional GRE liners. The installation process of those internal liner technologies should be done in the shop, as they cannot be done in the field. Therefore, an in situ lining system for downhole tubing is a most needed area of research to minimize the logistics and save operation time.
Most downhole completion systems were developed based on the use of metallics. For instance, metallic sand screen systems offer a simple and economic method for controlling sand. These systems have been subject to erosion/corrosion issues, and accordingly limit the life expectancy of the metallic screen. Therefore, ceramic sand screens were developed and proven to deliver high performance sand control in a variety of applications, Fig.911. Consequently, the polymer composite sand screen is being investigated as an alternative, cost-effective, attractive technology to metallic and ceramic screens. For example, GRE sand screens are an attractive alternative to metallic screens. But, they are still limited to low temperature wells — below 93 °C.
Ongoing efforts are being made to expand the operation envelope of composite sand screen systems, by evaluating alternative advanced plastic materials that withstand high temperatures in oil and gas wells.This would be a breakthrough technology that can resist corrosion/erosion issues faced by conventional sand screens, and it will pave the way for other applications in downhole completion systems, such as inflow control devices and inflow control valves. The dissolvable and drillable composite tools were designed to provide zonal isolation in the wellbore between multistage stimulation treatments.
For instance, the composite frac plugs help to mitigate the risk during drill out, while decreasing time on location and costs to complete unconventional wells. These plugs provide faster mill times than a traditional plug. The R&D efforts are very promising in the area of dissolvable materials that can hold high pressures during the completion operations and retrieval operations2.
The elastomer materials have found a niche downhole application in the form of seal elements. Typicalelastomerdownhole applications include blow out preventers, seals, packers, O-rings and seals for valves, and power sections for downhole motors. It is well-known that the popular use of elastomers in packers for well completion and zonal isolation sealing mechanisms perform a very critical function — either for short-term or long-term performance. For example, swellable packer technology has been steadily gaining momentum.
This technology relies on the physical swelling process characteristic of elastomers. The elastomer can be specifically formulated to achieve a controlled swelling when exposed to hydrocarbons, water, or a combination of both — hybrid swelling packers. The more demanding applications in ultra HPHT with very high H2S and CO2 levels are pushing the boundaries of elastomers. Although intensive research and development, as well as qualification, is moving in this area where a combination of elastomers like perfluoro elastomers and engineering plastics such as PEEK and polyamides are gaining momentum. More research is required to keep up with the demands of the ultra HPHT environment.
The utilization of composites in downhole completions is a most needed area of research through the joint efforts between academia, operators, and service companies to improve well integrity, and reduce the weight of the overall completion systems.
Well Intervention Tools
Conventional well intervention tools, such as steel CT and wirelines, have shown several issues with pitting corrosion12.In addition,they are being subjected to high friction within the formation, which limits the ability of the CT to reach down to the target depth. To address potential premature failures, a composite CT was recently introduced in the well intervention business as a low fatigue and corrosion resistant alternative to steel CT, however, due to the inherent limitation of material properties and the product’s capabilities to comply with an extended reach requirement, applications of the basic design of composite CT were not found successful. As a result, with the advent of new composite design materials, the CT based on thermoplastic composites are still under development13.
The spoolable composite CT may have a structure similar to a TCP with a well bonded structure, or a RTP with an unbonded structure. In these new structure designs, carbon and aramid fiber reinforcement were used in a multilayer configuration that optimized the axial performance and fatigue life of the material, while keeping spoolability and use in a horizontal extended reach well feasible. On the other hand, the composite wireline is also under proof of concept studies, to replace conventional metallic lines. This would be a breakthrough technology in the oil and gas industry.
Although, the initial cost of thermoplastic composite well intervention technology is high, there are many advantages that may help in the reduction of the operational cost by increasing resistance to corrosion, ease of handling in a severe dogleg, providing less friction, it is lightweight, and has better mechanical properties.
A composite flexible shoe can be a good solution when running casing with a high build rate and inclination, to minimize the risk of getting stuck off bottom, Fig. 1014. The flexible casing shoe reduces the side loads at the bottom of the drill string when running into the hole. Due to the flexibility of nonmetallic composites, as compared to steel, it minimizes the high loads resulting from the inherent stiffness of the metallic casing, as it is bent through doglegs downhole.
The product provides many advantages in tackling wellbore challenges, including:
- The ability to guide large diameter casings with inclinations above 40°.
- Use with any size casing when running through severe doglegs.
- Use with deep-water wells, which require the use of stiff, large diameter casings.
- Use in extended reach drilling or horizontal wells to prevent buckling or hanging up casing in the build and lateral sections, to increase run efficiency.
A conventional metallic impeller/diffuser for downhole electric submersible pumps(ESP)is subjected to frequent failure due to high corrosive environments. For ESP impellers in oil and gas applications, particle erosion/corrosion is the main cause of the component failures in the process lines. Engineered composite pumps have proven to outlast metallic parts by many years, because composite pumps better resist cavitation, and they are not subject to corrosion or electrolysis attack. Composite pumps have become a solution for longer pump life, Fig.1115.
The structure of composite pump materials includes graphite composite made of 3D graphite interwoven fibers with a hybrid phenolic resin system.
The composite impeller pumps are capable of continuous operation at 150°C, and have excellent mechanical properties and chemical resistance15. Currently, there is a business need in deploying this technology to resolve the premature erosion/corrosion effects. As result, a feasibility study is in process to ensure that the full composite impeller is a reliable technology, able to withstand downhole well conditions.
Shape Memory Polymer (SMP)
The shape memory polymer (SMP) is a smart material that changes its properties in response to external stimulus. There are different triggering mechanisms that the SMP responds to, such as temperature and chemical reactions. For instance,the SMP polyurethane (SMPU) foam has several potential applications in downhole zonal isolations, including water shut off for downhole fracture operations.
The activation of the SMP expansion occurs if the surrounding temperature is higher than the high glass transition temperature of the SMP. Otherwise, no activation occurs. Recently, the SMPU has been used as a reactive sand control media to control the sand in openhole applications, replacing the conventional openhole gravel packing. The SMP was designed to be run in the hole as part of the completion in a compressed state with an outer diameter smaller than that of the wellbore when activated.The SMP material then expands and fills the entire annulus, applying residual stress to the sandface while acting as a filtration medium16. This application has proven the effectiveness of SMP foam to eliminate the concerns of plugging and erosion associated with a stand-alonescreen16. The sand management was selected as an initial application, which will pave the way for several applications for SMPs in downhole use.
Nonmetallic composites have many advantages in terms of corrosion resistance and extension of the well’s life cycle; however, the high initial cost and limitation of technical skills present substantial challenges. The worldwide oil industry has observed the business need for allocating the necessary investment needed in R&D to support utilizing nonmetallics in downhole applications. Otherwise, the investment and localization of nonmetallics are other important pillars that would help to reduce the initial cost and improve local technical skills.
The path forward is clearly articulated around the role of the end user, R&D entities, and service companies to serve the industry. The following are some initiatives toward optimizing nonmetallic composite expertise in downhole applications:
- Support for the R&D is needed to replace the conventional tubing/casing with nonmetallic composite materials in water application wells,which includes supply, disposal, injection, and observation wells.
- Expand the operating envelope of current composite materials.
- Explore organic and natural materials that would help reduce the cost of the carbon fiber.
- Optimize the cost of composite raw material and the manufacturing process.
- Introduce 3D printing technology in the composite manufacturing process.
- Develop a nondestructive evaluation for online inspection of the composite structure and induced defects.
- Study the mechanical behavior of composites and material degradation based on high temperature and loading/deformation.
- Develop the numerical models supporting composite material selection and life prediction based on downhole conditions.
- Develop nonmetallic standards supporting downhole applications.
- Expand the applications of spoolable composites, i.e., RTP concept, to be used for downhole tubing.
- Explore alternative applications beyond tubulars, including completion, well intervention, and ESP applications.
- Address different associated challenges related to packer setting, cementing, perforation, and completion installation with full nonmetallic tubulars.
- Support the research and validation of new materials for swellable packers in ultra-HPHT wells.
- Develop a reliable threaded connection for metal composite joints that withstand high pressures.
- Develop smart materials such as SMP for downhole zonal isolations.
- Support the localization and an investment plan in the composite business.
- Develop the intelligent composite tubing, where fiber optic sensing and the power cable can be embedded for downhole real-time measurements.
Nonmetallic composite-based materials have been introduced in oil and gas applications, including onshore, offshore, and downhole. As clearly stated in this article, the deployment of nonmetallic materials in downhole applications has allowed us to overcome corrosion challenges, minimize frequent workover, and extend the life cycle of critical downhole products, including tubular, drilling, and well completions. As a result, much effort by the industry has placed a heavy emphasis on robust deployment and development methodologies in alignment with the field application trends to qualify cost-effective composite materials covering many downhole applications.
The path forward, which already started in R&D, is focused toward improving the composite business to serve the oil and gas industry. This involves the development of specific roadmaps for different products to accelerate the mass deployment, support localization and investment in research studies. This effort requires joint work with different entities that sets the basis for increasing the deployment of cost-effective materials for more demanding HPHT applications.
The authors would like to thank the management of Saudi Aramco for their support and permission to publish this article.
This article has been accepted for presentation at the Gas and Oil Technology Showcase and Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, October 21-23, 2019.
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ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Wael O. Badeghaish
M.S. in Materials Science Engineering and in Project Management, Catholic University of America Wael O. Badeghaish is a Petroleum Scientist working with the Production Technology Team of Saudi Aramco’s Exploration and Petroleum Engineering Center – Advanced Research Center (EXPEC ARC). He joined Saudi Aramco in early 2015 after previously working for the Sabic Plastic Application Development Center in Riyadh. Wael’s work experience has mainly been in the area of well completion and intervention. Recently, he has been working to support the research and development of nonmetallic composites in downhole applications. Wael is a member of Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) and National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE).In 2009, he received his B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. In 2014, Wael received his M.S. degree in Materials Science Engineering and in Project Management from the Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.
Dr. Mohamed N. Noui-Mehidi
Ph.D. in Resource & Energy Science, University of Kobe Dr. Mohamed N. Noui-Mehidi is Senior Petroleum Engineer Consultant at Saudi Aramco’s Exploration and Petroleum Engineering Center – Advanced Research Center (EXPEC ARC). He is the Advanced Well Systems focus area champion for the Production Technology Team. Mohamed joined Saudi Aramco in late 2008 after previously working for the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia. He has more than 29 years of experience in the area of multiphase flow dynamics, flow metering, and flow modeling. Mohamed’s research activities are in the development of new technologies in well control and monitoring for upstream oil and gas production, well intervention tools, and flow sensors. He has published more than 100 journal articles and conference papers on the different aspects of fundamental and applied fluid dynamics as well as authored 39 company granted patents and several patent applications. Mohamed received his Ph.D. degree in Resource & Energy Science from the University of Kobe, Kobe, Japan.
Oscar D. Salazar
M.S. degree in Polymer Science, University of Akron Oscar D. Salazar is a Nonmetallic Engineering Specialist working in the Nonmetallic ngineering Division of Saudi Aramco’s Consulting Services Department. Prior to joining Saudi Aramco, he worked in Weatherford International where he was in charge of research, product development, and lab qualification of nonmetallic materials for downhole applications, including composites, lastomers, and coatings. Oscar also worked as an independent consultant in nonmetallic materials in several projects for Total and Conoco. His work experience extends to 25 years in nonmetallic and coatings, covering a broad spectrum of activities such as design of experiments, failure analysis,
development of engineering standards, materials selection and research and development. Oscar received his M.S. degree in Polymer Science from the University of Akron, Akron, Ohio. In addition, he has academic experience in root cause analysis through courses at the university level.